All posts by Wilma Scott

What is Cirrhosis?

Cirrhosis is the scarring of the liver which is caused by numerous forms of liver diseases and conditions, including chronic alcoholism and hepatitis. When your liver is injured, it tries to repair itself. Scar tissues form during this self-repair process. The scar tissue can gradually replace the healthy liver cells and prevents the liver from working properly (decompensated cirrhosis). Cirrhosis can lead to liver failure, a condition in which your liver stops working. Advanced cirrhosis can be fatal and life-threatening.

During the early stages of cirrhosis, you may not have any symptoms. The signs and symptoms of cirrhosis usually occur when the damage in your liver is extensive. As the damage of your liver gets worse over time, you may experience the following symptoms.

  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Lack of appetite
  • Nausea

Further symptoms can also occur as your liver becomes even more damaged. These symptoms are:

  • Your eyes or skin becomes yellow (jaundice)
  • Intense itching
  • Whitening of the nails or redness in the palms of your hands
  • Blood vessels that look like a spider web on your skin
  • A tendency to bruise or bleed more easily
  • Vomiting blood
  • Swollen tummy (ascites) or legs (edema) which is a result of fluid build-up
  • For women, loss or absence of periods that are not related to menopause
  • For men, breast enlargement, testicular atrophy (shrinkage in the testicles), or loss of sex drive
  • Fever
  • Brownish urine
  • Dark and tarry-looking poo
  • Confusion, problems with concentration or memory, slurred speech, and drowsiness.

Make an urgent appointment with your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms listed above. Bear in mind that you may not get all of the symptoms and the symptoms you notice can also be signs of other conditions. However, if it is cirrhosis or not, these symptoms are will need to be diagnosed by a doctor.

Cirrhosis occurs when you damage your liver over a long period of time and it takes years for the condition to reach its fatal stages. The most common causes of cirrhosis include:

  • Chronic alcohol abuses over many years
  • A long-term hepatitis infection particularly hepatitis C and B
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is a condition where a build-up of excess fat results in an inflamed liver. 

Some conditions can result in cirrhosis, including:

  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Wilson’s disease (copper accumulated in the liver)
  • Hemochromatosis (iron build-up in your body)
  • Biliary atresia (bile ducts that formed poorly)
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis (destructions of the bile ducts)
  • Deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin
  • Glycogen storage disease or galactosemia (inherited disorder of sugar metabolism)
  • Alagille syndrome (a genetic disorder of the digestive system)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis (a liver disease that is caused by the body’s immune system)
  • Infection, including brucellosis and syphilis
  • Medications, such as isoniazid and methotrexate

Some factors increase the risk of developing cirrhosis. The risk factors include:

  • Excessive alcohol consumption over many years
  • Being overweight or obese since obesity can increase the risk of conditions that lead to cirrhosis, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver disease around the world.

Other Complications are Portal hypertension, malnutrition; bone disease, hepatic encephalopathy, acute-on-chronic cirrhosis, and splenomegaly are some of the complications. Cirrhosis can also lead to liver cancer as a large number of people who have liver cancer have pre-existing cirrhosis. Depending on how severe your cirrhosis is, it can also have an effect on life expectancy.

Damaged to your liver caused by cirrhosis cannot be undone, but if the condition is diagnosed early and the cause is treated, you can restrict further damage. Because the symptoms of cirrhosis do not appear in its early stages, you may not find out that you have it unless you have a routine checkup. To diagnose cirrhosis, your doctor will ask about your alcohol use and medical history. Your doctor will also do some medical tests to check if your liver is larger than it should be or tender. If your doctor suspects cirrhosis, you will be ordered to do a blood test, MRI, or ultrasound. You may also need to undergo a procedure called biopsy to remove samples of your liver tissue to see how much damage has been done.

The treatment for cirrhosis depends on the cause and how damaged the liver is. Treatment is performed to slow down the progression of scar tissue, to treat symptoms, and to prevent complications of cirrhosis. If you have severe liver damage, you may need to be hospitalized. 

The first steps of treatment are to treat the underlying cause of cirrhosis to prevent any further damage. The treatments include:

  • Stop drinking alcohol immediately. If it is hard for you to stop using alcohol, your doctor will recommend a treatment program for alcohol dependency. Any amount of alcohol is toxic to the liver if you have cirrhosis.
  • If your cirrhosis is caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, you can be healthier if you lose some weight and control your blood sugar levels.
  • Medications for hepatitis if you have hepatitis B or C. Medications can limit the damage of your liver cells.
  • Medications for other causes of cirrhosis can slow the progression of certain types of cirrhosis. For instance, if you have primary biliary cirrhosis that is diagnosed early, the progression of cirrhosis can be delayed significantly.
  • Medications to relieve certain symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, and itching. Your doctor may prescribe nutritional supplements to counter malnutrition and prevent osteoporosis.

Then, your doctor will also treat any complications of cirrhosis. These treatments are:

  • Medications and a low-sodium diet to prevent fluid build-up can help control swelling and ascites.
  • Blood pressure medications can control portal hypertension or increased pressure in the veins that supply your liver.
  • You may be given antibiotics if you have any infections. 
  • Periodic blood tests and ultrasound exams can be ordered by your doctor to look for signs of liver cancer.

If your case of cirrhosis has reached an advanced stage, you may need a liver transplant because your liver is ceasing to function. A liver transplant is a surgery to replace your damaged liver with a healthy liver from a deceased donor or with part of a liver from a living donor.  

What are Lower Respiratory Infections

The lower respiratory tract includes the Trachea, Primary Bronchi, and the Lungs. Any infections that occur in your lungs or below your voice box are lower respiratory tract infections. Sometimes people use the term to refer to Pneumonia, but it can also be applied to other types of infection. A lower respiratory tract infection can affect the air sacs around the end of the airways (such as pneumonia) or the airways (such as bronchitis). The most common lower respiratory tract infections are:

  • Bronchitis is a condition where the lining of your bronchial tubes is inflamed. It usually develops from a cold or other respiratory infection. While acute bronchitis is very common and usually improves within a week without any lasting effects. Chronic bronchitis is more serious and happens when there’s constant inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes.
  • Pneumonia happens when the air sacs in one or both of your lungs are inflamed by an infection. It can be caused by various organisms, such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria. The condition ranges from mild to life-threatening. In infants, young children, and the elderly, pneumonia is a very serious condition.
  • Tuberculosis mainly affects your lungs. It is an infectious disease that is spread through tiny droplets released into the air via sneezes and coughs. Tuberculosis can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the spine and the brain. It is caused by a bacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The symptoms of lower respiratory tract infections vary depending on the severity of the infection. When your condition is less severe, you can have symptoms similar to the common cold, such as:

  • Headache
  • Mild sore throat
  • Low fever
  • Dry cough
  • A runny or stuffed-up nose

However, in more severe infections, you will experience the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Rapid breathing
  • Wheezing
  • Pain in your chest
  • Blue tint in the skin
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Severe cough that can produce phlegm 

If you feel you have the symptoms above, or your symptoms keep getting worse over time, you need to make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible.

Some people confuse their symptoms with upper respiratory tract infections symptoms. You can tell the difference by knowing where the symptoms occur. If you have upper respiratory infections, you will feel the symptoms above your necks, such as sore throats, headaches, and sneezing. However, flu can be lower or upper respiratory tract infection.

The main causes of lower respiratory tract infections are:

  • Bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus
  • Mycoplasma, which are small organisms that has the characteristic of viruses and bacteria
  • Fungal infections
  • Viruses, such as the flu or respiratory syncytial virus

There are also cases in which substances from the environment irritate and cause inflammation to the lungs or airways and this will result in an infection. These substances are dust, chemicals, allergens, air pollution, cigarette smoke, vapors, and fumes. Aside from substances from the environment, you are more likely to develop a lower respiratory tract infection if you fall under any of the following risk factors, including:

  • Weakened immune system
  • Aged over 65 years old
  • Aged under 5 years old
  • Recently had surgery
  • Recently had flu or cold

Some less severe lower respiratory tract infections can go away without any treatment. The following are some home remedies you can use to treat your symptoms at home.

  • Plenty of rest. Your body needs some downtime when you’re fighting an infection. It is essential for you to take a day or two off work or from your normal routine to let your body heal. To maintain a healthy immune system, you need adequate sleep because when you are sleep-deprived, you are more vulnerable to cold viruses.
  • Drinks plenty of fluid. When you’re battling a lower respiratory tract infection, you need to stay hydrated as it can help thin out mucus. Also, when you experience a fever, you may be dehydrated. Make sure to replace lost fluids with warm liquids. Water, soups, and herbal teas can increase your liquid intake. You can try having ginger tea or add honey to lemon water. Remember to avoid caffeine and alcohol.
  • Overthe-counter medicine. Your treatment plan should involve some antibiotic, antifungal, or antiviral medications. However, it is important to remember that antibiotics are only used to treat bacterial infections as they don’t work for viral infections.
  • Quit smoking. Smoking inflamed your bronchial tubes, so you need to give it a rest. It aggravates and irritates bronchitis. It can also prolong acute symptoms.
  • Have a proper diet. You can help your body heal by eating a varied diet that is rich in whole-food. 


However, home remedies can’t treat more severe lower respiratory tract infections; they can only help you manage your symptoms. If you suspect that your symptoms are more severe, you should see a doctor for a diagnosis and treatment. Your doctor usually diagnoses a lower respiratory tract infection by using a stethoscope to listen to your chest and breathing. Your doctor may also ask you to do other tests, such as:

  • Chest X-rays to see if you have pneumonia.
  • Blood tests to check for viruses and bacteria.
  • Pulse oximetry to see how much oxygen is present in your blood.
  • Mucus samples to check for viruses and bacteria.

After your diagnosis, your doctor may prescribe breathing treatments (such as an inhaler) and antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. If your case is a lot more serious you may need to go to the hospital to get IV fluids, breathing support, and antibiotics. Infants, very young children, and people who are older than 65 years old may need more treatment than healthy adults. 

Close Up Of Woman Suffering With Cough

There are several easy steps to take to prevent getting a lower respiratory tract infection. These steps include:

  • Avoid touching the face using unwashed hands
  • Wash hands frequently.
  • Get flu shot annually.
  • Avoid irritants, such as tobacco, fumes, and chemicals.
  • Get vaccines, such as MMR vaccines.
  • Stay away from people with respiratory symptoms.

How to Treat Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain is one of the most common medical conditions. It is a universal human problem and almost everyone on this planet will experience it at some point. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), at least 80% of adults will have lower back pain at some point in their life. Also, lower back pain is the major cause of job-related disability. 

Lower back pain usually develops because of a minor injury or overuse; such as strains due to unexpected movements. However, there are cases of people having lower back pain with no clear cause. Lower back pain may also be a symptom of certain diseases, including sciatica, spine infections, arthritis, spinal cord cancer, as well as herniated or ruptured disc. The lower back pain can appear gradually, sometimes even suddenly, and tends to last a few days or a few weeks. However, chronic cases can last longer than three months. Lower back pain is more common in people between thirty and fifty years old because the body is going through some changes. As you age, your body experiences a reduction in the fluid content between your vertebrae in the spine and you lose some muscle tone. These changes make the discs in the spine more irritable and your back more susceptible to injury.

The following are some of the most common causes of lower back pain and the best way to treat them.

Strains and Sprains

Strains and sprains are both the most common causes of lower back pain. A strain happens when your tendon is twisted, overstretched, or torn, while a sprain occurs when your ligament is overstretched, twisted, or torn. Back strains and sprains usually result from sports injuries, awkward twisting, overuse, or lifting something in an improper way or something too heavy for your strength. The symptoms of strains and sprains are:

  • Pain (with tenderness if you have a strain)
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Limited movement around the affected area

With a strain, you may also experience muscle spasm or cramping and muscle weakness. The first step to treating the strain or sprain is to practice the four-step RICE method. It is a simple self-care technique to help with the pain, reduce swelling, and speed up healing. The RICE method includes:

  • Rest: As soon as you are hurt, stop any physical activity, exercise, and avoid putting any weight on. Rest as much as possible at least for the first 2 days. If you do not rest, you can delay your recovery and make the damage even worse than it actually is. Having a good rest also helps you prevent any further bruising to your back. 
  • Ice: Ice can reduce any swelling and pain to your back. Apply an ice pack that is covered with a light towel for around 15 to 20 minutes every two to three hours for at least one to two days. If you do not have an ice pack, you can use a bag of frozen peas or corn.
  • Compression: Wrap the injured area with an elastic medical bandage or trainer’s tape to help reduce swelling. Make sure it is snug but not too tight. If the area gets numb, blue, or the pain increases, loosen the wrap. 
  • Elevation: With this step, you need to raise the affected area above the level of your heart. This will reduce swelling, pain, and throbbing. Sometimes lying on your back will hurt, so you can lie on your side with your knees bent and a pillow between your legs. You can also lie on your back, but place a pillow beneath your thighs to reduce the pressure to your lower back.

You can also take over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen (Tylenol) to reduce pain and swelling. If your pain and swelling get worse, you will need to see a doctor.


Sciatica is the pain that radiates from the buttocks and down into your legs caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve. The pain you feel can range from mild to severe. Sciatica can be a symptom of certain medical conditions. However, a herniated (slipped) disk is the reason behind sciatica. The symptoms include numbness in your leg along the nerve and a tingling sensation in your feet and toes. The pain you feel may be aggravated when you sit down.

For acute sciatica, you can practice self-care measures, including:

  • Exercises such as walking or light stretching
  • Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen
  • Hot or cold compression packs to reduce the pain.

However, if you have chronic sciatica, you need a combination of medical treatment and self-care measures, which include:

  • Painkillers (Usually prescribed by your doctor)
  • Physical therapy
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

If your symptoms do not improve after all the treatments above are performed, your doctor may suggest you undergo surgery. Your surgery options include lumbar laminectomy and discectomy.

Herniated Disc

The discs on your back are very prone to injury, especially as you grow older. The disc can herniate or tear. A herniated or a slipped disc can occur when the cartilage that surrounds the disc thrusts against the nerve roots or the spinal cord. This makes the cushion located between your spinal vertebrae outspreads outside its usual position. The symptoms include:

  • Pain extending from your arms or legs
  • Pain and numbness
  • Pain that increases with certain movements
  • Muscle weakness
  • Aching, tingling, and burning sensations in the injured area

Treatment for a herniated disc depends on the level of pain you experience and how far the disc has slipped. Most people can relieve the pain with an exercise program. You can also take over-the-counter pain relievers and avoid heavy lifting to relief the pain. However, you will need to stay active while you experience a slipped disc as inactivity can lead to joint stiffness and muscle weakness. If you do not get better after self-care measures and home remedies, make sure to make an appointment with your doctor.

Other conditions

Sometimes, lower back pain is a symptom of conditions that do not relate directly to the back, such as kidney stones, fibromyalgia, endometriosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and pregnancy. If you are pregnant and you experience lower back pain, here are some ways you can treat it:

  • Adjusting your sleep position. Sleep on your side and keep one or both of your knees bent. You can also use a pregnancy or support pillows under your abdomen, behind your back, or between your bent knees.
  • Practice good posture. Always remember to hold your chest high, stand up straight, and keep your shoulders relaxed.
  • Physical activity. Regular physical activity can help relieve back pain and keep your back strong. Try gentle activities, such as walking or water exercise. However, make sure you consult with your healthcare provider beforehand. 

What Is Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive movement disorder that affects the nervous system and it leads to stiffness, shaking as well as difficulty in balance, walking, and coordination. A study based in France found that men are 50 percent more likely to be affected by Parkinson’s disease than women, and the risk for women appears to increase with age. Age is a clear risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Most people develop the disease around the age of 60. However, there is about 5 to 10 percent of rare cases when the disease appears earlier. Parkinson’s disease that develops before the age of 50 is known as “early-onset” Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease happens when neurons in the area of the brain that controls movement become impaired or die. These neurons normally produce dopamine, but when they become impaired or die, they produce less dopamine and cause movement problems. Not only dopamine, people who have Parkinson’s disease also lose the nerve endings that supposed to produce norepinephrine. Norepinephrine is the main chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system that controls many automatic functions of the human body, including blood pressure and heart rate. This explains why people with Parkinson’s disease experience fatigue, decreased movement of food through the digestive tract, and irregular blood pressure.

To this day, there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease yet, but there are medicines, therapies, and surgical treatments that can relieve some symptoms. The cause of the disease is also still largely unknown. Some cases appear to be hereditary or traced to specific genetic mutations, but in many cases, this disease happens randomly. Many researchers believe that a combination of genetic factors and environmental factors such as exposure to toxins can result in Parkinson’s disease. 

The symptoms generally develop slowly, sometimes with a hardly noticeable tremor in just one hand and a feeling of stiffness in the body. It gets worse over time, and as the disease progress, people may have difficulty in talking and have behavioral changes, sleep problems, memory difficulties, and fatigue. The symptoms may vary based on the severity, not all people who have Parkinson’s disease experience all the symptoms. Different individuals also experience the progression at different paces.  The main symptoms include:

  • A tremor in hands, arms, jaw, head, or legs
  • Slowing down of movement
  • Limbs and trunk stiffness
  • Balance and coordination problems which sometimes lead to a fall.

There are also other common symptoms, such as depression, constipation, skin problems, sleep disruptions, and swallowing difficulty. The early stages of Parkinson’s disease can be so subtle that the person does not notice and the doctor is unable to make any diagnosis. The early signs are usually shown on one side of the body, and there is minimal functional impairment. However, functional impairment may not occur in the first stage. 

Although it is hard to identify the earliest symptoms since it is very mild, there are some signs that should be a warning:

  • A tremor in the hands
  • Losing the sense of smell
  • Reduced sense of coordination and balance
  • Facial expressions
  • A tremor in the voice that causes a person to speak more softly than they usually do
  • Cramped and smaller handwriting
  • Sleep problems.

It is very important to know the early symptoms of the disease and get an early diagnosis as soon as possible since treatment is more likely to be effective in the early development of Parkinson’s disease. Many people fail to recognize it because they think that the early signs are just normal signs of aging.

What Is The Main Cause Of Motor Neurone Disease

Motor neuron disease (MND) is a rapidly progressing neurological disease that destroys motor neurons, causing them to stop working properly. Motor neurons are the cells responsible to control primary muscle activity, which includes breathing, speaking, swallowing, and walking. Generally, messages from nerve cells in the brain (upper motor neurons) are transferred to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (lower motor neurons), then the messages are transmitted from lower motor neurons to particular muscles. When there are disruptions in the signals between the lower motor neurons and the muscle, the muscle will not work properly, it will progressively decline and may begin to deteriorate.

Most people who develop motor neuron disease usually have no family history of the condition. It is also very unlikely to develop in other family members. However, the disease has inherited forms, which appear in children, and the symptoms can be present at birth. It can also occur at any age, but in adults, the symptoms usually appear after the age of 40. There are several types of motor neuron disease. Doctors classify the disease according to whether they are inherited or sporadic. 

  • The most common MND in adults is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ASL) that affects both the upper and lower motor neuron. Muscles of the arms, legs, mouth, and respiratory system can be affected. 
  • Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) involves the brain stem. Usually, people with ALS have PBP too. It causes frequent choking spells, difficulty eating, swallowing, and speaking.
  • The rarest form of MND is the primary lateral sclerosis, which affects the neuron in the brain. It is not fatal, but it can seriously disturb a person’s life. 
  • Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) affects the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. It is one of the rarest conditions which causes slow but progressive muscle wasting.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited MND, and it affects children. This condition tends to affect the legs, arm, and trunk.

The symptoms of MND begin regularly over weeks and months. It usually takes place on one side of the body and then gets gradually worse. The common early symptoms are a weakened grip, slurred speech, dragging of the leg, weak ankle muscles, and weakness at the shoulder. The condition is mostly not painful. As the damage is progressing, it will extend to other parts of the body until the person is eventually unable to move.

Little is known about the exact causes of motor neuron disease. Experts believe that 90% of MNDs happen randomly (not currently known), and the other 10% are hereditary. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, sporadic or inherited MNDs may be implicated by environmental, toxic, viral, or genetic factors. Doctors also often find it tough to diagnose MND, particularly in the early stages since it can resemble other conditions like multiple sclerosis. When a doctor suspects someone has MND, they will typically refer them to a neurologist and suggest a thorough examination and tests, including blood and urine tests, MRI brain scan, muscle biopsy, electromyography (EMG), or spinal tap.

MND does not have a cure yet, but the right treatment may slow its progression. The treatments usually involve supportive devices and physical therapy. For some types of MND, the disease progression can also be slowed down by drugs. New medications are emerging, and researchers are investigating many options in hope to produce a cure. And although it is still unclear what causes motor neurons to stop working properly, better knowledge of genetic factors might prevent inherited MND.

Warning Signs Of Dementia

Dementia is an overall term that describes a set of symptoms of losing cognitive function and behavioral abilities severe enough to interfere with a person’s daily life and activities. Generally, these functions include language skills, memory, problem-solving, the ability to focus, and visual perception. There are people with dementia who cannot control their emotions and have a change of personality. Although dementia generally involves memory loss, the two have different causes. Having memory loss alone does not always mean you have dementia. Dementia is not a specific disease; it is caused when the brain is damaged by several diseases. The most common cause is Alzheimer’s disease, which accounts for 60 to 70 percent of cases.

Photo Credit: Geralt, Pixabay

Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells or loss of nerve cells. The damage interferes with brain cells’ ability to communicate with each other, which affects thinking behavior, and feelings. There are different levels of severity of dementia, from the mildest stage when it is just starting to disturb a person’s functioning, to the most severe stage when the person depends completely on others for basic daily activities. There is an incorrect belief that serious mental decline is an inevitable part of getting old, which is why many people often overlook its early signs. Yes, dementia is more common in older people, and up to half of all 80 years old may have some form of dementia, but it is not a normal part of aging. Therefore, it is good to learn some warning signs of dementia.

The symptoms vary greatly; especially the early stage and different types of dementia may affect people differently. However, common warning signs of dementia include:

  • Memory problems, such as forgetfulness and memory loss
  • Increased confusion and finding it difficult to do ordinary daily tasks
  • Personality or behavior changes
  • Apathy and withdrawal
  • Disorientation, such as losing track of time and having difficulty to find their way to a familiar place
  • Language problems are when a person forgets simple words and struggles to follow a conversation.
  • Reduced concentration.

The early symptoms are usually very subtle, and some people fail to notice them. These symptoms may also develop very gradually and can go unnoticed for a long period of time. Since some of the early signs are not severe enough to be diagnosed as dementia, they’re often named as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These symptoms will remain the same and stay as MCI or will worsen and become dementia. If you or someone you love is starting to show these warning signs, it is best to go and see a doctor.

Some people may not like the idea of visiting a doctor because they do not realize that there is anything wrong with them, or they tend to be afraid to have their fears confirmed. However, early detection of the signs is important since some cases can be treated, and although there is no cure for dementia yet, a doctor can help you slow the progression and ease the symptoms.

Attention: Facelift

No one has to leave their youthful look behind as they age. An experienced and skilled cosmetic surgeon can remedy the effects of time and gravity. Facelift surgery can even address issues of early aging before they take hold. Here we will introduce you to the benefits of facelift surgery and some of its basic postulates. Practically, it is an introduction to facelift surgery and everything that it stands for.

Why have a facelift?

As we grow older, our skin’s elasticity is minimized, as well as our facial tissues volume. As a result, we will have loose skin on the neck, get deep wrinkles and gain jowls on the lower face. All of that can crush our self-confidence and can have an adverse effect on both our career and personal relationships.

One can mitigate that following a facelift, patients that had a facelift tend to get a massive boost about their appearance. That newfound confidence often translates into a better standard of living, greater ambitions, and increased lust for life. People decide to have a facelift surgery because they have seen the before and after changes in friends or other people.

Types of facelifts

Facelift surgery is a highly customized intervention that is tailored to the patient’s needs. The performing surgeon also tailors his techniques accordingly.


  • Mini Facelift  


People with a mild degree of sagging and jowling make the perfect candidates for a mini-facelift. It is a low invasive technique that allows the cosmetic surgeon to tighten the deep facial tissues with short incisions. In most cases, the incisions will be done above the ears. That way the surgeon can correct the jawline and give new life to a “tired appearance.” A mini-facelift can be performed with general or local anesthesia, which depends on the patient, and it is the cosmetic surgeon that makes the final call. This type of facelift is also known as mini lower facelift as it focuses on that part of the face.



  • StandArd Facelift


A traditional or standard facelift is way more extensive, and it addresses moderate to advanced aging on the neck and the mid-face. Through careful incisions, a skillful cosmetic surgeon can effectively restore the natural contours of both the neck and the face. Because the incisions are more extensive, so are the results and the recovery period is longer.



  • Laser, Non-Surgical Facelift


This type of treatment can increase the quality of the skin and tighten all the pores. That way the skin can significantly increase its glow. This procedure is non-invasive, meaning no incisions are done. It comes with no risk and little to no recovery time. However, some patients may experience partial redness. But that usually goes away in just a couple of hours.

The biggest downside to this is that patients can’t expect the same level of improvements as with mini and standard facelifts. Many even claim that non-surgical facelifts are not actual facelifts and that they shouldn’t be considered as such. At the same time, lasers are perfect for those that like to take care of their skin before the aging process starts to take its toll.

Final words

We live in the Digital Age and a society in which personal appearance is everything. Like it or not, we are always judged by how we look, how we dress, who we hang out with, and so on. A facelift can, by all means, make everyone look more youthful and vibrant. Each of the facelifts has its specifics. Which one will suit you most is something that is between you, your expectations, and your surgeon. Aging cannot be stopped, but it can be prolonged!

Do You Need A Tummy Tuck

Even after following a strict exercise regime followed by even stricter diet and losing most of the extra fat, many people are still not pleased with the look of their midsection or belly. The fact that they can’t get a flat-toned tummy even with all those efforts, fuels their frustration. Sometimes the cause is pregnancy, while other times it is merely because of their genetically pre-determined fat distribution. In any case, it makes women feel both frustrated and self-aware of their appearance.

The solution

Plastic surgeons are solutions to both problems. What they offer is two types of procedures: liposuction and a tummy tuck. There is the mini tummy tuck as well, but that’s just a variation from the tummy tuck.

How to determine what’s best for you?


  • Liposuction


Liposuction is recommended for patients with stubborn pockets of fat and excess fat. The ideal candidates have around 20 lbs. of their optimal body weight and historically haven’t lost weight on a massive scale, nor been pregnant. This procedure includes tiny incisions in the skin and suctioning the fat that is between the abdominal wall and the skin. What matters most is not to suction all of the fat, but to use some of it to sculpt the tummy in perfect shape. Liposuction can be performed on the waistline, hips, abdomen, arms, and the inner thighs. Compared to tummy tucks, its main advantage is that there are speedy recovery time and minimal scarring.


  • Tummy Tucking


Women after pregnancy can still get liposuction, but it won’t be as effective as tummy tucking. A tummy tuck surgery consists of incisions along the bikini line going from hip to hip to lift the fat and skin from the abdominal wall. After the excess skin is removed, the abdominal wall is tightened with stitches. Sometimes, the tummy tuck procedure is complemented with liposuction to remove the fatty layers. Unfortunately, a tummy tuck operation will leave a scar that will be visible for some time. An experienced surgeon can make sure that the incision is kept out of sight when you wear clothes, swimsuit bottoms or underwear.


  • Mini Tummy Truck


If scars are something that terrifies you, then you might consider doing a mini tummy tuck. This procedure enables you to get rid of the extra skin around your waistline but with much less scaring than if you did the full tummy tuck procedure. Mini tuck only removes the skin from below the belly button. Unlike the full procedure that removes excess skin from the whole stomach.

So, the best option is to schedule an appointment with a plastic surgeon. That way they can examine you and determine which procedure will suit you best.

Breast Lift The Facts

Breast lift procedures are nowadays considered as a routine procedure. However, there are still some misconceptions fueled by ignorance that is mainly spread over the internet. In this article, we will discuss some of the most common misconceptions about breast lift treatments and replacing them with solid facts.

Myth No.1 – Breast lift is the same as breast augmentation

Reality: A breast lift is a type of plastic surgery also known as mammoplasty in which woman’s breasts are being modified and raised for aesthetical purposes. Breast lifts and breast augmentation share a lot of standard features, but that doesn’t mean they are the same. Breast augmentation can include breast reduction, breast enlargement, adding breast silicons, breast lift, and so on.

Myth No. 2 – Breast lift surgery is a simple procedure

Reality: There is nothing simple about breast lift surgery as there are plenty of things to consider. Any experienced surgeon will tell you that it takes some time to prepare for the procedure as there is a recovery period. That way the risk of potential complications is almost wholly annulled. Before the procedure, you will need to run a couple of tests, scans, and exams. Also, the patient will be asked to stick to a recommended diet before the operation. A breast lift may be considered a routine surgery only if it is performed by an experienced surgeon and in a certified clinic.

Myth No.3 – Breast lift can lead to scarring

Reality: After the procedure, there will be a visible scar. However, that’s only temporary, and after a while, it will vanish on its own. Therefore, there is no need to worry that there will be a scar on your breasts or near them.

Myth No.4 – Breast lift as expensive as hell

Reality: Not anymore! At one point it was only the celebrities and the super-wealthy that could afford it. However, nowadays the price is way lower so that a person with a middle-class income can easily afford it.

Myth No.5 – Breast lift recovery period is short

Reality: the Truth is that any reputable surgeon will ask the patient to take it easy for a period of two to four weeks. That depends on the condition of the patient, as well as the extent of the operation. The thing is that not everyone is in the same condition and everyone’s body reacts differently to one such operation. Then some other circumstances affect the recovery period. The important thing is not to exercise or lift heavy items during the initial resting period. However, to make a full recovery it will take several more weeks so that the swelling will completely go away.

Myth No.6 – I can achieve the same effect with exercising

Reality: Again, there is no truth in this. There is no way to achieve the same results as breast lift surgery. Anybody that says otherwise can be literarily considered as poor information. Exercising builds chest muscle. But that doesn’t influence breast skin or tissue. Therefore, exercising can help you with your confidence, but almost little to nothing when it comes to reshaping or repositioning your breasts.

Myth No.7 – Creams and supplements can help you have perky breasts

Reality: Again, no supplement or cream can help you lift your breasts like a breast lift surgery. Some creams can increase the elasticity of the breasts and encourage collagen growth. But the results are minimal. Anyone can try creams and supplements, but simple before and after comparison can debunk their effectiveness.

Breast Reduction Explained

Having a Breast reduction after giving birth is quite common, and many women do it and especially women that are in their thirties or forties. We will explain everything that any woman should know about the breast reduction surgery, whether it is better to do it before or after getting pregnant, the benefits of specific exercises, potential risks, and the possibility of having a scar, and so on.

Why breast reduction?

Large breasts can cause physical symptoms such as Discomfort, Backache, Neck pain, skin irritations. Psychological distress: Common complaints from women with large breasts include not being able to wear fashionable clothes and finding it difficult to take part in active sports.

The thing is that during pregnancy, and even after giving birth, breasts expand and contract. This is most dramatic during milk production. As a result, a woman’s breasts can increase up to several cup sizes. After the mother stops breastfeeding, the breasts are flatter, saggier, and much bigger than before.

One way to approach this issue is through exercises and a diet. However, that can be helpful only to some extent. A breast reduction surgery can take care of all of that in a heartbeat. Nowadays, breast surgeries are quite common and pure routine. There is not any significant risk of infections, potential scars, or anything like that. Even though after the surgery there will be a small scar. But that’s just temporary, and it will go away after a while.

One big dilemma among many women is whether to do it before or after pregnancy. According to almost all doctors, it’s for the best to do it after giving birth. The thing is that a breast reduction before giving birth could affect the ability of the mother to breastfeed. That is why it is recommended to do it after giving birth.

About Breast Reduction Surgery

Breast reduction is done under general anesthesia. As already mentioned earlier, breast reduction is pure routine nowadays as surgeons have perfected the entire procedure. During the first few days, the breasts will feel a bit too sensitive and tender. Also, they will be bruised and swollen.

The recovery time is something that your surgeon will determine. However, generally speaking, you should constrain yourself from any physical activity or heavy lifting for two to four weeks. Plus, your surgeon might recommend avoiding wearing underwire bras for a few months. That’s the period in which the swelling should completely go away.

The Results

The results will be breasts shaped and the size you want them to be. The plastic surgeon can tell you exactly what you can expect. That alone should give a boost to your confidence and make you feel younger, more attractive, and full of life. Those are some of the main benefits reported from women that had a breast reduction.